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Vaccine effectiveness was 90% (95% CI 82 to 95) when the analysis was restricted to cases in children younger than 2 months. Data on transmission of pertussis within households were captured in a population-based, nationwide, prospective study performed in the Netherlands between February 2006 and December 2009. Antibody responses to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae 2 + 3 (FIMs), diphtheria, tetanus, Hib, MCC and PCV13 serotypes were compared to responses in a historical cohort of 246 infants born to mothers not vaccinated in pregnancy.

Both parent and offspring benefit from each others' survival, with maternal fitness interests being aligned with those of the offspring because of direct fitness benefits (i. We use cooperation and conflict theory to generate testable predictions about domains in which fetal microchimerism may enhance maternal health and those in which it may be detrimental. In October, 2012, a pertussis vaccination programme for pregnant women was introduced in response to an outbreak across England. Expected infant seropositivity rates reached 80% vs 55% following second versus third trimester immunization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3. We determined the evolution of the maternal-fetal transport of immunoglobulins during human pregnancy.One likely candidate mechanism for maternal countermeasures is the targeting and elimination of fetal cells by maternal immune cells. This effectiveness probably results from protection of infants by both passive antibodies and reduced maternal exposure, and will provide valuable information to international policy makers.

It could be shown that there are safe medicinal and surgical options, which can be administered after the first trimester, and the prognosis for the mother and development of the child are not affected by breast cancer and its treatment.For 96 households (60%), the most likely source of infection of the infant was established, being a sibling (41%), mother (38%), or father (17%). Extending this framework beyond the placenta suggests that the maternal systems should have adaptations to limit the capacity of fetal cells to manipulate maternal tissues to the mother's fitness detriment. The evolutionary and functional framework for fetal microchimerism that we present here explains some of the contradictory findings in the literature and identifies gaps in our understanding that can help guide future work.

Gelet op het geringe en uitgesproken wisselend aantal gevallen dat jaarlijks in België wordt vastgesteld, is ervoor gekozen om genoemde ratio te berekenen op basis van de gecumuleerde maternale overlijdens en levendgeborenen van vijf opeenvolgende jaren, waarbij dan de daaruit berekende ratio op het middelste jaar geboekt wordt. Within these tissues, the outcomes of these fetal‐maternal negotiations (mother‐offspring tug‐of‐war) are important in maternal health and wellbeing.

De sinds 2014 waargenomen stijging (3,7 maternale overlijdens in de periode 2012-2016) kan dus in verband worden gebracht met deze wijziging van de definitie, die met name rekening houdt met gevallen van zelfmoord. Although large‐scale chimerism is relatively rare among organisms 24, microchimerism is common in placental mammals.

Maternal pertussis vaccination is effective in preventing pertussis infection in infants aged <8 weeks and may be considered in other countries experiencing high levels of pertussis notifications. We conducted a population-based, nation-wide, prospective study to identify who introduced pertussis into the household of infants aged 6 months admitted to the hospital for pertussis in the Netherlands. It is also not known whether the co‐localization of fetal and maternal immune cells contributes to autoimmune disease. In England, antenatal pertussis immunization using a tetanus/low-dose diphtheria/5-component acellular-pertussis/inactivated-polio (TdaP5/IPV) vaccine was introduced in October 2012.There was no difference in stillbirths, major malformations, chorioamnionitis, 5-minute Apgar score, or cord blood pH. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the association between maternal vaccination and infant pertussis infection. Influence of maternal vaccination on growth, development and GP infection-related contact rates were assessed using multivariate linear mixed modelling and multivariate negative binomial regression, respectively. It is important to point out here that cooperation and conflict between maternal and offspring interests does not imply intention on the part of either party, but it is instead a consequence of selection that can be instantiated through a variety of mechanisms.

  • Fruugo ID: 258392218-563234582
  • EAN: 764486781913
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